Mangoes are a tropical fruit exported from Eastern India, Burma and the Andaman Islands. Mangoes are the fruit of the mango tree, a large tropical tree of the Anacardiaceae family.

Among tropical fruits, mangoes are the second most produced fruit in the world, preceded only by bananas. There are about 1,000 varieties of mango.

Nearly 50% of the world's mangoes are grown in India, producing about 19 million tonnes per year of the total world production. Global production amounted to approximately 26.3 million tonnes in 2004. Mangoes are the sixth most produced fruit in the world (behind bananas).

When exported, fruits are usually picked green, which diminishes taste qualities. However, just like bananas and kiwis, mangoes are “climacteric" and can therefore ripen after picking. Mangoes are a very pressure-sensitive fruit, making them more vulnerable in international transport.

For harvesting, various indicators are used.

Maturity indicators:

  • Shape
  • Colour: skin and flesh

Quality indicators:

  • Appearance: size, shape, colour, absence of rot and visible defects
  • Firmness
  • Flavour: ripening leads to a progressive increase in sweetness, through the transformation of starch into sugar

Short exposure to an environment with low ethylene content, constant temperature and optimal relative humidity leads to accelerated and even ripening of the mangoes in 5 to 9 days, depending on the variety and stage of ripeness.

The carbon dioxide concentration must be kept low in the ripening chamber.

CA delays ripening and reduces respiration rates and ethylene production.

The fruit should be stored cold, by rapid cooling.

Storage conditions:

  • Optimum storage temperature:
    • 13°C for ripe green mangoes
    • 10°C for partially ripe and ripe mangoes
  • Optimum relative humidity: 90 to 95%.
  • Shelf life at 13°C :
    • 2-4 weeks in air
    • 3-6 weeks in a CA depending on variety and stage of ripeness.

Physiological and physical disorders :

  • Sap exudation
  • Skin abrasions
  • Cold damage
  • Heat damage
  • Internal decomposition of the flesh
  • Gelatinous core (premature ripening)
  • Soft nose

Diseases :

  • Anthracnose
  • Diplodia stem end rot

  • AC preservation at the right temperature
  • Combination of cold storage and use of AC chambers to maintain fruit colour and significantly reduce pathogenic deterioration, while allowing for a longer shelf life than normal cold storage


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